Selecting hardware for Apache Cassandra implementations 

Choosing the appropriate hardware for Apache Cassandra depends on selecting the right balance of memory, CPU, disks, number of nodes, and network.

Attention: DataStax Enterprise customers, see the topics in Planning and testing DataStax Enterprise deployments in the DataStax Enterprise documentation instead.

Choosing the appropriate hardware for Apache Cassandra depends on your use case. The right balance of memory, CPU, disks, number of nodes, and network are vastly different for environments with static data that are accessed infrequently than for volatile data that is accessed frequently. Be sure to read Anti-patterns in Apache Cassandra for important information about SAN storage, NAS devices, and NFS.

Attention: These recommendations are guidelines. Consult the Cassandra community for information about testing your configuration thoroughly before deployment.

For testing use the cassandra-stress tool at your desired configuration. Be sure to test common administrative operations, such as bootstrap, repair, and failure, to make certain your hardware selections meet your business needs. See Testing your Apache Cassandra cluster before production.

Do not use a machine suited for development for load testing or production. Failure may result.


The more memory a Cassandra node has, the better read performance. More RAM also allows memory tables (memtables) to hold more recently written data. Larger memtables lead to a fewer number of SSTables being flushed to disk, more data held in the operating system page cache, and fewer files to scan from disk during a read. The ideal amount of RAM depends on the anticipated size of your hot data.

For both dedicated hardware and virtual environments, the recommended memory is

  • Production: 32 GB to 512 GB; the minimum is 8 GB for Cassandra nodes.
  • Development in non-loading testing environments: no less than 4 GB.
  • Java heap space. See Tuning Java resources.
  • Garbage collection: See Tuning Java resources.


Insert-heavy workloads are CPU-bound in Cassandra before becoming memory-bound. (All writes go to the commit log, but Cassandra is so efficient in writing that the CPU is the limiting factor.) Cassandra is highly concurrent and uses as many CPU cores as available. Recommendations:

  • Dedicated hardware in production environments: 16-core CPU processors are the current price-performance sweet spot.
  • Dedicated hardware in development in non-loading testing environments: 2-core CPU processors are sufficient.

Spinning disks versus solid state drives (local only) 

Note: For cloud deployments, consult the Cassandra community.

SSDs are recommended for Cassandra nodes. The NAND Flash chips that power SSDs provide extremely low-latency response times for random reads while supplying ample sequential write performance for compaction operations. In recent years, drive manufacturers have improved overall endurance, usually in conjunction with spare (unexposed) capacity. Additionally, because PBW/DWPD ratings are probabilistic estimates based on worst case scenarios, such as random write workloads, and because Cassandra does only large sequential writes, drives significantly exceed their endurance ratings. However, it is important to plan for drive failures and have spares available. A large variety of SSDs are available from server vendors and third-party drive manufacturers.

For purchasing SSDs, the best recommendation is to make SSD endurance decisions not based on workload, but on how difficult it is to change drives when they fail. Remember, your data is protected because Cassandra replicates data across the cluster. Buying strategies include:
  • If drives are quickly available, buy the cheapest drives that provide the performance you want.
  • If it is more challenging to swap the drives, consider higher endurance models, possibly starting in the mid range, and then choose replacements of higher or lower endurance based on the failure rates of the initial model chosen.

For additional help in determining the most cost-effective option for a given deployment and workload, Consult the Cassandra community for more information.

Disk space 

Disk space depends on usage, so it's important to understand the mechanism. Cassandra writes data to disk when appending data to the commitlog for durability and when flushing memtables to SSTable data files for persistent storage. The commit log has a different access pattern (read/writes ratio) than the pattern for accessing data from SSTables. This is more important for spinning disks than for SSDs.

SSTables are periodically compacted. Compaction improves performance by merging and rewriting data and discarding old data. However, depending on the type of compaction and size of the compactions, during compaction disk utilization and data directory volume temporarily increases. For this reason, be sure to leave an adequate amount of free disk space available on a node.

For large compactions:
Compaction strategy Requirements
SizeTieredCompactionStrategy (STCS) Sum of all the SSTables compacting must be smaller than the remaining disk space.
Note: Worst case: 50% of free disk space. This scenario can occur in a manual compaction where all SSTables are merged into one giant SSTable.
LeveledCompactionStrategy (LCS) Generally 10%. Worse case: 50% if the Level 0 backlog exceeds 32 SSTables (LCS uses STCS for Level 0).
DateTieredCompactionStrategy (DSCS) Amount of space equal to the amount of data that the system writes during the time period specified by the table's max_window_size_seconds property.
TimeWindowCompactionStrategy (TWCS)  


Important: Use these recommendations as a starting point. Be sure to thoroughly test before production deployment. It is recommended to test with the cassandra-stress at your desired configuration. Be sure to test common administrative operations, such as bootstrap, repair, and failure, to make certain your hardware selections meet your business needs. See Testing your Apache Cassandra cluster before production.
Capacity per node (node density) 
Node capacity is highly dependent on the environment. Determining node density depends on many factors, including:
  • Whether data changes frequently or infrequently.
  • Access frequency.
  • Compaction strategy: choice of compaction strategy depends of whether the workload is write- or read-intensive or time dependent. See Disk space above.
  • Using HDDs or SSDs.
  • Network performance: remote links likely limits storage bandwidth and increase latency.
  • Storage speed and whether the storage is local or not.
  • Replication factor: See Data distribution and replication.
  • SLAs (service-level agreements) and ability to handle outages.
  • Whether the data is compressed or not.
To avoid problems, DataStax recommends keeping data per node near or below 1 TB. Exceeding this value has the following effects:
  • Extremely long times (days) for bootstrapping new nodes.
  • Impacts maintenance (day-to-day operations), such as recovering, adding, and replacing nodes.
  • Reduces efficiency when running repairs.
  • Significantly extends the time it takes to expand datacenters.
  • Substantially increases compactions per node.

Higher capacity nodes works best with static data and low access rates.

Search node capacity 
For best performance, use a maximum of 500 GB capacity for search nodes. If you require higher capacity, perform extensive testing or consulting assistance before deployment. See Capacity planning for DSE Search.
Capacity and I/O 
When choosing disks for your nodes, consider both capacity (how much data you plan to store) and I/O (the write/read throughput rate). Some workloads are best served by using less expensive SATA disks and scaling disk capacity and I/O by adding more nodes (with more RAM).
Number of disks - SATA 
Ideally Cassandra need at least two disks per node, one for the commit log and the other for the data directories. At a minimum the commit log should be on its own partition.
Commit log disk - SATA 
The disk need not be large, but it should be fast enough to receive all of your writes as appends (sequential I/O).
Commit log disk - SSD 
Unlike spinning disks, it's alright to store both commit logs and SSTables are on the same mount point.
Data disks 
Use one or more disks per node and make sure they are large enough for the data volume and fast enough to both satisfy reads that are not cached in memory and to keep up with compaction.
RAID on data disks 
It is generally not necessary to use RAID for the following reasons:
  • Data is replicated across the cluster based on the replication factor you've chosen.
  • Cassandra includes a JBOD (Just a bunch of disks) feature to take care of disk management. Because Cassandra responds according to your availability/consistency requirements to a disk failure either by stopping the affected node or by blacklisting the failed drive, you can deploy nodes with large disk arrays without the overhead of RAID 10. You can configure Cassandra to stop the affected node or blacklist the drive according to your availability/consistency requirements. Also see Recovering using JBOD.
RAID on the commit log disk 
Generally RAID is not needed for the commit log disk. Replication adequately prevents data loss. If you need extra redundancy, use RAID 1.
Extended file systems 
It is recommended to deploy Cassandra on XFS or ext4. On ext2 or ext3, the maximum file size is 2 TB even using a 64-bit kernel. On ext4 it is 16 TB.

Because Cassandra can use almost half your disk space for a single file when using SizeTieredCompactionStrategy, use XFS when using large disks, particularly if using a 32-bit kernel. XFS file size limits are 16 TB max on a 32-bit kernel, and essentially unlimited on 64-bit.


Since Cassandra is a distributed data store, it puts load on the network to handle read/write requests and replication of data across nodes. Be sure that your network can handle inter-node traffic without bottlenecks. It is recommended binding your interfaces to separate Network Interface Cards (NIC). You can use public or private NICs depending on your requirements.

  • Recommended bandwidth is 1000 Mb/s (gigabit) or greater.
  • Thrift/native protocols use the rpc_address.
  • Cassandra's internal storage protocol uses the listen_address.

Cassandra efficiently routes requests to replicas that are geographically closest to the coordinator node and chooses a replica in the same rack when possible. Cassandra will always choose replicas located in the same datacenter over replicas in a remote datacenter.


If using a firewall, make sure that nodes within a cluster can reach each other. See Configuring firewall port access:

The location of the cassandra.yaml file depends on the type of installation:
Package installations /etc/cassandra/cassandra.yaml
Tarball installations install_location/resources/cassandra/conf/cassandra.yaml
cassandra-stress tool
Apache Cassandra version
Tuning Java resources
Apache Cassandra version
Data distribution
Apache Cassandra version
Configuring compaction
Apache Cassandra version
Recovering using JBOD
Apache Cassandra version
Apache Cassandra version
Apache Cassandra version
Configuring firewall port access
Cassandra ports
CQL version Corresponding Cassandra version
CQL 3.1 2.0, 2.1
CQL 3.2 3.0, 3.x