Token metadata

Quick overview


  • used for token-aware routing or analytics clients.
  • immutable (must invoke again to observe changes).
  • advanced.metadata.token-map.enabled in the configuration (defaults to true).

Metadata#getTokenMap returns information about the tokens used for data replication. It is used internally by the driver to send requests to the optimal coordinator when token-aware routing is enabled. Another typical use case is data analytics clients, for example fetching a large range of keys in parallel by sending sub-queries to each replica.

Because token metadata can be disabled, the resulting TokenMap object is wrapped in an Optional; to access it, you can use either a functional pattern, or more traditionally test first with isPresent and then unwrap:

Metadata metadata = session.getMetadata();

metadata.getTokenMap().ifPresent(tokenMap -> {
  // do something with the map

if (metadata.getTokenMap().isPresent()) {
  TokenMap tokenMap = metadata.getTokenMap().get();
  // do something with the map

TokenMap methods

For illustration purposes, let’s consider a fictitious ring with 6 tokens, and a cluster of 3 nodes that each own two tokens:

Text Diagram

The first thing you can do is retrieve all the ranges, in other words describe the ring:

Set<TokenRange> ring = tokenMap.getTokenRanges();
// Returns [Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(12), Murmur3Token(2)),
//          Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(2), Murmur3Token(4)),
//          Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(4), Murmur3Token(6)),
//          Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(6), Murmur3Token(8)),
//          Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(8), Murmur3Token(10)),
//          Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(10), Murmur3Token(12))]

Note: Murmur3Token is an implementation detail. The actual class depends on the partitioner you configured in Cassandra, but in general you don’t need to worry about that. TokenMap provides a few utility methods to parse tokens and create new instances: parse, format, newToken and newTokenRange.

You can also retrieve the ranges and tokens owned by a specific replica:

// [Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(10), Murmur3Token(12)),
//  Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(4), Murmur3Token(6))]

// [Murmur3Token(12)), Murmur3Token(6))]

As shown here, the node owns the ranges that end with its tokens; this is because ranges are start-exclusive and end-inclusive: ]10, 12] and ]4, 6].

Next, you can retrieve keyspace-specific information. To illustrate this, let’s use two keyspaces with different replication settings:

// RF = 1: each range is only stored on the primary replica
CREATE KEYSPACE ks1 WITH replication = {'class': 'SimpleStrategy', 'replication_factor': 1};

// RF = 2: each range is stored on the primary replica, and replicated on the next node in the ring
CREATE KEYSPACE ks2 WITH replication = {'class': 'SimpleStrategy', 'replication_factor': 2};

getReplicas finds the nodes that have the data in a given range:

TokenRange firstRange = tokenMap.getTokenRanges().iterator().next();
// Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(12), Murmur3Token(2))

Set<Node> nodes1 = tokenMap.getReplicas(CqlIdentifier.fromCql("ks1"), firstRange);
// [node2] (only the primary replica)

Set<Node> nodes2 = tokenMap.getReplicas(CqlIdentifier.fromCql("ks2"), firstRange);
// [node2, node3] (the primary replica, and the next node on the ring)

There is a also a variant that takes a primary key, to find the replicas for a particular row. In the following example, let’s assume that the key hashes to the token “1” with the current partitioner:

String pk = "";
// You need to manually encode the key as binary:
ByteBuffer encodedPk = TypeCodecs.TEXT.encode(pk, session.getContext().getProtocolVersion());

Set<Node> nodes1 = tokenMap.getReplicas(CqlIdentifier.fromInternal("ks1"), encodedPk);
// Assuming the key hashes to "1", it is in the ]12, 2] range
// => [node2] (only the primary replica)

Set<Node> nodes2 = tokenMap.getReplicas(CqlIdentifier.fromCql("ks2"), encodedPk);
// [node2, node3] (the primary replica, and the next node on the ring)

Finally, you can go the other way, and find the token ranges that a node stores for a given keyspace:

Set<TokenRange> ranges1 = tokenMap.getTokenRanges(CqlIdentifier.fromCql("ks1"), node1);
// [Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(4), Murmur3Token(6)),
//  Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(10), Murmur3Token(12))]
// (only its primary ranges)

Set<TokenRange> ranges2 = tokenMap.getTokenRanges(CqlIdentifier.fromCql("ks2"), node1);
// [Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(2), Murmur3Token(4)),
//  Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(4), Murmur3Token(6)),
//  Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(8), Murmur3Token(10)),
//  Murmur3TokenRange(Murmur3Token(10), Murmur3Token(12))]
// (its primary ranges, and a replica of the primary ranges of node3, the previous node on the ring)



You can disable token metadata globally from the configuration:

datastax-java-driver.advanced.metadata.token-map.enabled = false

If it is disabled at startup, Metadata#getTokenMap will stay empty, and token-aware routing won’t work (requests will be sent to a non-optimal coordinator). If you disable it at runtime, it will keep the value of the last refresh, and token-aware routing might operate on stale data.

Relation to schema metadata

The keyspace-specific information in TokenMap (all methods with a CqlIdentifier argument) relies on schema metadata. If schema metadata is disabled or filtered, token metadata will also be unavailable for the excluded keyspaces.