DataStax Enterprise 5.1+ introduces a DateRange type to represent ranges of dates and times. For example:

  • from 1999 to March 2003
  • from 4/17/2002 18:36 to 4/19/2002 18:37:30.5
  • from 9/25/2013 and never ending
  • from the beginning of time until 9/25/2013
  • on 12/25/2005

One end of a DateRange (called a bound) consists of a millisecond-precision timestamp and a desired precision. Thus, a bound of 1999 is represented by a timestamp for any time in the year 1999 and a precision of year.

Three classes in the driver model this structure:


The Precision class contains constants for the valid precisions:

  • YEAR
  • DAY
  • HOUR

This class cannot be instantiated.


The Bound class encapsulates one end of a date-range. It consists of an integer timestamp (obtained via the (timeMs()) accessor) and a Precision (obtained via the precision() accessor). The timestamp is the number of milliseconds since the start of the epoch.

This class also has a static method called unbounded() which returns a Bound that represents “no bound”. It is used as the virtual end-point of an open-ended range.

To check if a bound is unbounded, simply compare to Bound::unbounded():

if ($b == Dse\DateRange\Bound::unbounded()) {

The constructor for Bound accepts long, double, Dse\Bigint, numeric string, and DateTime values for the timestamp attribute:

use Dse\DateRange\Precision;
use Dse\DateRange\Bound;

$b = new Bound(Precision::YEAR, 12345);
$b = new Bound(Precision::YEAR, "12345");
$b = new Bound(Precision::YEAR, new DateTime("2016-12-17"));

This is particularly useful on 32-bit platforms where PHP does not inherently support 64-bit integers.


A DateRange typically has a lower-bound (lowerBound()) and an upper-bound (upperBound()) such as “from 4/17/2002 18:36 to 4/19/2002 18:37:30.5”. Open-ended ranges have a Bound::unbounded() on the open-side.

However, date ranges can also consist of a single value, as in “on 12/25/2005”. Such DateRange objects store the single bound in lowerBound(). upperBound() returns NULL. In addition, an isSingleDate() function returns whether or not this DateRange has a single date value.

The constructor for DateRange accepts both Bound and <Precision, timestamp> pairs, where timestamp may be a long, double, Dse\Bigint, numeric string, or DateTime.

Putting all of this together, one can manipulate DateRange objects as follows:

use Dse\DateRange;
use Dse\DateRange\Precision;
use Dse\DateRange\Bound;

// long timestamp (seconds precision) representing 2 days after the beginning of the epoch 
$t = 86400 * 2;

// Single date
$d = new DateRange(Precision::YEAR, $time * 1000);
$d = new DateRange(Precision::YEAR, new DateTime("2005-04-03"));

// Single date, using a DateRange\Bound object.
$bound = new Bound(Precision::YEAR, new DateTime("2005-04-03"));
$d = new DateRange($bound);

// Closed range
$d = new DateRange(Precision::YEAR, ($t - 3600) * 1000, Precision::DAY, $t * 1000); 

// Open value
$d = new DateRange(Bound::unbounded());

// Open range on one side.
$d = new DateRange(Precision::MILLISECOND, $t, Bound::unbounded());

// Pull out attributes
print $d->lowerBound()->precision();
print $d->upperBound()->timeMs();

// Check if unbounded on one side
if ($d->lowerBound() == Bound::unbounded()) {