What's new in Apache Cassandra 3.x

An overview of new features in Apache Cassandra 3.x.

The latest version of Apache Cassandra 3.x is 3.11.14.

The CHANGES.txt describes the changes in detail. You can view all version changes by branch or tag in the drop-down list on the changes page.

New features Cassandra 3.2 and later

-graph option for cassandra-stress

cassandra-stress results can be automatically graphed for data visualization.


A TTL value can be specified when copying from CSV files.

bulkloader can use third party authentication

The bulkloader has an option -ap for third-party authentication.


If a table is accidentally dropped, it can be recreated with its ID and the commitlog replayed to regain data.

Static columns can be indexed

In Cassandra 3.4 and later, static columns can be indexed.

New option for nodetool compact

In Cassandra 3.4 and later, addition of --user-definedcompact to nodetool compact to allow user to submit a list of files. Handy for dealing with low disk space or tombstone purging.

Display timestamp in sub-second precision

In Cassandra 3.4 and later, timestamp defaults to include sub-second precision.

nodetool gettimeout and nodetool settimeout

In Cassandra 3.4 and later, two nodetool commands to print out or set the value of a timeout in milliseconds.

jvm.options file for GC and some JVM options

Some JVM options have been moved from the cassandra-env.sh file into the new jvm.options file.

JBOD improvements

Improvements to SSTable partitioning by token range have improved JBOD compaction and backup. See Improving JBOD for more details. A new command is available to support the improvements, nodetool relocatesstables.

Clustering columns can be used in WHERE clause without secondary index

In Cassandra 3.6 and later, clustering columns without a secondary index can be used in a WHERE clause, provided the ALLOW FILTERING clause is also used.

Update and delete individual subfields of a user-defined type (UDT)

In Cassandra 3.6 and later, if a UDT has only non-collection fields, an individual field value can be updated or deleted.


In Cassandra 3.6 and later, a query can be limited to return results from each partition, such as a "Top 3" listing.

CAS statistics added to nodetool proxyhistograms

In Cassandra 3.6 and later, CAS read and write latency is displayed for compare-and-set operations.

--hex-format option added to nodetool getsstables

In Cassandra 3.6 and later, an option to use a hex-formatted key to get SSTables is added to nodetool getsstables.

Static columns can now be used with SASI indexes

In Cassandra 3.6 and later, static columns can be used with SASI indexes.

Change Data Capture (CDC) logging

In Cassandra 3.8 and later, change data capture (CDC) logging can be enabled.

New features released in Cassandra 3.0

Storage engine refactored

The Storage Engine has been refactored.

Materialized Views

Materialized views handle automated server-side denormalization, with consistency between base and view data.
Operations improvements

Addition of MAX_WINDOW_SIZE_SECONDS to DTCS compaction settings

Allow DTCS compaction governance based on maximum window size rather than SSTable age.

File-based Hint Storage and Improved Replay

Hints are now stored in files and replay is improved.

Default garbage collector is changed to G1

Default garbage collector is changed from Concurrent-Mark-Sweep (CMS) to G1. G1 performance is better for nodes with heap size of 4GB or greater.

Changed syntax for CREATE TABLE compression options

Made the compression options more consistent for CREATE TABLE.

Add nodetool command to force blocking batchlog replay

BatchlogManager can force batchlog replay using nodetool.

Nodetool over SSL

Nodetool can connect using SSL like cqlsh.

New nodetool options for hinted handoffs

Nodetool options disablehintsfordc and enablehintsfordc added. to selectively disable or enable hinted handoffs for a datacenter.

nodetool stop

Nodetool option added to stop compactions.

Other notable changes

Requires Java 8

Java 8 is now required.

nodetool cfstats and nodetool cfhistograms renamed

Renamed nodetool cfstats to nodetool tablestats. Renamed nodetool cfhistograms to nodetool tablehistograms.

Native protocol v1 and v2 are dropped

Native protocol v1 and v2 are dropped in Cassandra 3.0.