nodetool compact

Forces a major compaction on one or more tables or given SSTables.

Forces a major compaction on one or more tables or user-defined compaction on given SSTables.

OpsCenter provides a Compact option in the Nodes UI for Running compaction.

Major compactions may behave differently depending which compaction strategy is used for the affected tables:
  • SizeTieredCompactionStrategy (STCS): The default compaction strategy. This strategy triggers a minor compaction when there are a number of similar sized SSTables on disk as configured by the table subproperty, min_threshold. A minor compaction does not involve all the tables in a keyspace. Also see STCS compaction subproperties.
  • DateTieredCompactionStrategy (DTCS) (deprecated).
  • TimeWindowCompactionStrategy (TWCS) This strategy is an alternative for time series data. TWCS compacts SSTables using a series of time windows. While with a time window, TWCS compacts all SSTables flushed from memory into larger SSTables using STCS. At the end of the time window, all of these SSTables are compacted into a single SSTable. Then the next time window starts and the process repeats. The duration of the time window is the only setting required. See TWCS compaction subproperties. For more information about TWCS, see How is data maintained?.
  • LeveledCompactionStrategy (LCS): The leveled compaction strategy creates SSTables of a fixed, relatively small size (160 MB by default) that are grouped into levels. Within each level, SSTables are guaranteed to be non-overlapping. Each level (L0, L1, L2 and so on) is 10 times as large as the previous. Disk I/O is more uniform and predictable on higher than on lower levels as SSTables are continuously being compacted into progressively larger levels. At each level, row keys are merged into non-overlapping SSTables in the next level. This process can improve performance for reads, because the database can determine which SSTables in each level to check for the existence of row key data. This compaction strategy is modeled after Google's LevelDB implementation. Also see LCS compaction subproperties.

See How is data maintained? and Configuring compaction.

Note: A major compaction incurs considerably more disk I/O than minor compactions.

Synopsis

nodetool [connection_options] compact 
[-et end_token] [-s] [-st start_token] [--user-defined] 
[--] [keyspace tables [tables ...] | sstable_name ...]
Table 1. Legend
Syntax conventions Description
UPPERCASE Literal keyword.
Lowercase Not literal.
Italics Variable value. Replace with a valid option or user-defined value.
[ ] Optional. Square brackets ( [ ] ) surround optional command arguments. Do not type the square brackets.
( ) Group. Parentheses ( ( ) ) identify a group to choose from. Do not type the parentheses.
| Or. A vertical bar ( | ) separates alternative elements. Type any one of the elements. Do not type the vertical bar.
... Repeatable. An ellipsis ( ... ) indicates that you can repeat the syntax element as often as required.
'Literal string' Single quotation ( ' ) marks must surround literal strings in CQL statements. Use single quotation marks to preserve upper case.
{ key:value } Map collection. Braces ( { } ) enclose map collections or key value pairs. A colon separates the key and the value.
<datatype1,datatype2> Set, list, map, or tuple. Angle brackets ( < > ) enclose data types in a set, list, map, or tuple. Separate the data types with a comma.
cql_statement;End CQL statement. A semicolon ( ; ) terminates all CQL statements.
[ -- ] Separate the command line options from the command arguments with two hyphens ( -- ). This syntax is useful when arguments might be mistaken for command line options.
' <schema> ... </schema> ' Search CQL only: Single quotation marks ( ' ) surround an entire XML schema declaration.
@xml_entity='xml_entity_type' Search CQL only: Identify the entity and literal value to overwrite the XML element in the schema and solrconfig files.

Definition

The short form and long form parameters are comma-separated.

Connection options

-h, --host hostname
The hostname or IP address of a remote node or nodes. When omitted, the default is the local machine.
-p, --port jmx_port
The JMX port number.
-pw, --password jmxpassword
The JMX password for authenticating with secure JMX. If a password is not provided, you are prompted to enter one.
-pwf, --password-file jmx_password_filepath
The filepath to the file that stores JMX authentication credentials.
-u, --username jmx_username
The user name for authenticating with secure JMX.

Command arguments

--
Separates an option from an argument that could be mistaken for a option.
-et, --end-token end_token
The token at which the range ends. Requires start token (-st).
keyspace_name
Keyspace name. By default, all keyspaces.
-s, --split-output
Do not create a single large file. Split output when using SizeTieredCompactionStrategy (STCS) to files that are 50%-25%-12.5% and so on of the total size. Ignored for DTCS.
sstable_name
The name of the SSTable file. Specify sstable_name or sstable_directory.
-st, --start-token start_token
The token at which the range starts. Requires end token (-et).
table_name
The table name.
--user-defined
Submits listed files for user-defined compaction.