Imports and exports CSV (comma-separated values) data to and from Cassandra.

Imports and exports CSV (comma-separated values) data to and from Apache Cassandra.


COPY table_name ( column, ...)
FROM  'file_name' | STDIN 
WITH option = 'value' AND ...

COPY table_name ( column , ... )
TO  'file_name' | STDOUT 
WITH option = 'value' AND ...
Table 1. Legend
  • Uppercase means literal
  • Lowercase means not literal
  • Italics mean optional
  • The pipe (|) symbol means OR or AND/OR
  • Ellipsis (...) means repeatable

A semicolon that terminates CQL statements is not included in the synopsis.


Using the COPY options in a WITH clause, you can change the CSV format. These tables describe the available options:
Table 2. Common COPY options for TO and FROM
COPY Options Default Value Use To
DELIMITER comma (,) Set the character that separates fields having newline characters in the file.
QUOTE quotation mark (") Set the character that encloses field values.
ESCAPE backslash (\) Set the character that escapes literal uses of the QUOTE character.
HEADER false Set true to indicate that first row of the file is a header.
NULL an empty string Represents the absence of a value.
DATETIMEFORMAT '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S%z' Set the time format for reading or writing CSV time data. The timestamp uses the strftime format. If not set, the default value is set to the time_format value in the cqlshrc file.
MAXATTEMPTS 5 Set the maximum number of attempts for errors.
REPORTFREQUENCY 0.25 Set the frequency with which status is displayed, in seconds.
DECIMALSEP period (.) Set a separator for decimal values.
THOUSANDSSEP None Set a separator for thousands digit groups.
BOOLSTYLE True, False Set a representation for boolean values for True and False. The values are case insensitive. Example: yes,no or 1,0.
NUMPROCESSES Number of cores - 1 Set the number of worker processes. Maximum value is 16.
CONFIGFILE None Specify a configuration file with the same format as the cqlshrc file to set WITH options. The following sections can be specified: [copy], [copy-to], [copy-from], [copy:ks.table], [copy-to:ks.table], [copy-from:ks.table], where <ks> is the keyspace name and <table> is the tablename. Options are read from these sections, in the order specified above. Command line options always override options in configuration files. Depending on the COPY direction, only the relevant copy-from or copy-to sections are used. If no configuration file is specified, the cqlshrc file is searched instead.
RATEFILE None Specify a file for printing output statistics.
Table 3. COPY FROM options
COPY Options Default Value Use To
CHUNKSIZE 1,000 Set the size of chunks passed to worker processes.
INGESTRATE 100,000 Set an approximate ingest rate in rows per second. Must be set to a greater value than chunk size.
MAXBATCHSIZE 20 Set the maximum size of an import batch.
MINBATCHSIZE 2 Set the minimum size of an import batch.
MAXROWS -1 Set the maximum number of rows. "-1" sets no maximum.
SKIPROWS 0 The number of rows to skip.
SKIPCOLS None Set a comma-separated list of column names to skip.
MAXPARSEERRORS -1 Set the maximum global number of parsing errors. "-1" sets no maximum.
MAXINSERTERRORS -1 Set the maximum global number of insert errors. "-1" sets no maximum.
ERRFILE None Set a file to store all rows that are not imported. If no value is set, the information is stored in import_ks_table.err where <ks> is the keyspace and <table> is the table name.
TTL 3600 Set the time to live in seconds. By default, data will not expire.
Table 4. COPY TO options
COPY Options Default Value Use To
ENCODING UTF8 Set the COPY TO command to output unicode strings.
PAGESIZE 1,000 Set the page size for fetching results.
PAGETIMEOUT 10 Set the page timeout for fetching results.
BEGINTOKEN None Set the minimum token string for exporting data.
ENDTOKEN None Set the maximum token string for exporting data.
MAXREQUESTS 6 Set the maximum number of requests each worker process can work on in parallel.
MAXOUTPUTSIZE -1 Set the maximum size of the output file, measured in number of lines. If a value is set, the output file will be split into segment when the value is exceeded. "-1" sets no maximum.

The ENCODING option is available only for the COPY TO command. This table shows that, by default, Cassandra expects the CSV data to consist of fields separated by commas (,), records separated by line separators (a newline, \r\n), and field values enclosed in double-quotation marks (""). Also, to avoid ambiguity, escape a literal double-quotation mark using a backslash inside a string enclosed in double-quotation marks ("\""). By default, Cassandra does not expect the CSV file to have a header record on the first line that consists of the column names. COPY TO includes the header in the output if HEADER=TRUE. COPY FROM ignores the first line if HEADER=TRUE.

You cannot copy data to or from counter tables.


By default, when you use the COPY FROM command, Cassandra expects every row in the CSV input to contain the same number of columns. The number of columns in the CSV input is the same as the number of columns in the Cassandra table metadata. Cassandra assigns fields in the respective order. To apply your input data to a particular set of columns, specify the column names in parentheses after the table name.

COPY FROM loads rows from a CVS file in a parallel non-deterministic order. Empty data for a column is assumed by default as NULL value and will override a value; if the data is overwritten, unexpected results can occur. Data can be successfully loaded but with non-deterministic random results if there is more than one row in the CSV file with the same primary key. Having more than one row with the same primary key is not explicitly checked, so unintended results can occur.

COPY FROM is intended for importing small datasets (a few million rows or less) into Cassandra. For importing larger datasets, use the Cassandra bulk loader.

COPY TO a CSV file

For example, assume you have the following table in CQL:

cqlsh> SELECT * FROM test.airplanes;

 name          | mach | manufacturer | year
 P38-Lightning |  0.7 |     Lockheed | 1937

After inserting data into the table, you can copy the data to a CSV file in another order by specifying the column names in parentheses after the table name:

COPY airplanes
(name, mach, year, manufacturer)
 TO 'temp.csv'

Specifying the source or destination files

Specify the source file of the CSV input or the destination file of the CSV output by a file path. Alternatively, you can use the STDIN or STDOUT keywords to import from standard input and export to standard output. When using stdin, signal the end of the CSV data with a backslash and period ("\.") on a separate line. If the data is being imported into a table that already contains data, COPY FROM does not truncate the table beforehand. You can copy only a partial set of columns. Specify the entire set or a subset of column names in parentheses after the table name in the order you want to import or export them. By default, when you use the COPY TO command, Cassandra copies data to the CSV file in the order defined in the Cassandra table metadata. You can also omit listing the column names when you want to import or export all the columns in the order they appear in the source table or CSV file.

Roundtrip copying of a simple table

Copy a table to a CSV file.

  1. Using CQL, create a table named airplanes and copy it to a CSV file.
      WITH REPLICATION = { 'class' : 'NetworkTopologyStrategy', 'datacenter1' : 1 };
    USE test;
    CREATE TABLE airplanes (
      name text PRIMARY KEY,
      manufacturer ascii,
      year int,
      mach float
    INSERT INTO airplanes
      (name, manufacturer, year, mach)
      VALUES ('P38-Lightning', 'Lockheed', 1937, 0.7);
    COPY airplanes (name, manufacturer, year, mach) TO 'temp.csv';
    1 rows exported in 0.004 seconds.
  2. Clear the data from the airplanes table and import the data from the temp.csv file.
    TRUNCATE airplanes;
    COPY airplanes (name, manufacturer, year, mach) FROM 'temp.csv';
    1 rows imported in 0.087 seconds.

Copy data from standard input to a table.

  1. Enter data directly during an interactive cqlsh session, using the COPY command defaults.
    TRUNCATE airplanes;
    COPY airplanes (name, manufacturer, year, mach) FROM STDIN;

    The output is:

    [Use \. on a line by itself to end input]
  2. At the [copy] prompt, enter the following data:
    'F-14D Super Tomcat', Grumman, 1987, 2.34
    'MiG-23 Flogger', Russian-made, 1964, 2.35
    'Su-27 Flanker', U.S.S.R., 1981, 2.35
  3. Query the airplanes table to see data imported from STDIN:
    SELECT * FROM airplanes;
    Output is:
     name               | manufacturer | year | mach
     F-14D Super Tomcat |      Grumman | 1987 | 2.35
          P38-Lightning |     Lockheed | 1937 | 0.7
          Su-27 Flanker |     U.S.S.R. | 1981 | 2.35

Copying collections

Cassandra supports round-trip copying of collections to and from CSV files. To perform this example, download the sample code now.

  1. Unzip the downloaded file named
  2. Copy/paste all the CQL commands from the cql_collections.txt file to the cqlsh command line.
  3. Take a look at the contents of the songs table. The table contains a map of venues, a list of reviews, and a set of tags.
    cqlsh> SELECT * FROM music.songs;
     id         |album|artist|data|reviews            |tags             |title|venue
     7db1a490...| null| null |null|['hot dance music']|         {'rock'}| null|{'2013-09-22...': 'The Fillmore', '2013-10-01...': 'The Apple Barrel'}
     a3e64f8f...| null| null |null|               null|{'1973', 'blues'}| null|null
     8a172618...| null| null |null|               null|'2007', 'covers'}| null|null
  4. Copy the music.songs table to a CSV file named songs-20140603.csv.
    cqlsh> COPY music.songs to 'songs-20140603.csv';
    3 rows exported in 0.006 seconds.
  5. Check that the copy operation worked.
    cqlsh> exit;
    $ cat songs-20140603.csv
    7db1a490...,,,,['hot dance music'],{'rock'},,"{'2013-09-22...': 'The Fillmore', '2013-10-01....': 'The Apple Barrel'}"
    a3e64f8f...,,,,,"{'1973', 'blues'}",,
    8a172618...,,,,,"{'2007', 'covers'}",,
  6. Start cqlsh again, and create a table definition that matches the data in the songs-204140603 file.
    cqlsh> CREATE TABLE music.imported_songs (
            id uuid PRIMARY KEY,
            album text,
            artist text,
            data blob,
            reviews list<text>,
            tags set<text>,
            title text,
            venue map<timestamp, text>
  7. Copy the data from the CSV file into the imported_songs table.
    cqlsh> COPY music.imported_songs from 'songs-20140603.csv';
    3 rows imported in 0.004 seconds.