GRANT

Defines resource authorization.

Assigns privileges to roles on database resources, such as keyspaces, tables, functions.

Important: Permissions apply immediately, even to active client sessions.

Synopsis

GRANT priviledge
ON resource_name
TO role_name
Note: Enclose the role name in single quotation marks if it contains special characters or capital letters.
Legend
Syntax conventions Description
UPPERCASE Literal keyword.
Lowercase Not literal.
Italics Variable value. Replace with a user-defined value.
[] Optional. Square brackets ( [] ) surround optional command arguments. Do not type the square brackets.
( ) Group. Parentheses ( ( ) ) identify a group to choose from. Do not type the parentheses.
| Or. A vertical bar ( | ) separates alternative elements. Type any one of the elements. Do not type the vertical bar.
... Repeatable. An ellipsis ( ... ) indicates that you can repeat the syntax element as often as required.
'Literal string' Single quotation ( ' ) marks must surround literal strings in CQL statements. Use single quotation marks to preserve upper case.
{ key : value } Map collection. Braces ( { } ) enclose map collections or key value pairs. A colon separates the key and the value.
<datatype1,datatype2> Set, list, map, or tuple. Angle brackets ( < > ) enclose data types in a set, list, map, or tuple. Separate the data types with a comma.
cql_statement; End CQL statement. A semicolon ( ; ) terminates all CQL statements.
[--] Separate the command line options from the command arguments with two hyphens ( -- ). This syntax is useful when arguments might be mistaken for command line options.
' <schema> ... </schema> ' Search CQL only: Single quotation marks ( ' ) surround an entire XML schema declaration.
@xml_entity='xml_entity_type' Search CQL only: Identify the entity and literal value to overwrite the XML element in the schema and solrConfig files.
privilege

Permissions granted on a resource to a role; grant a privilege at any level of the resource hierarchy.

The full set of available privileges is:

  • ALL PERMISSIONS
  • ALTER
  • AUTHORIZE
  • CREATE
  • DESCRIBE
  • DROP
  • EXECUTE
  • MODIFY
  • SELECT
resource_name

Cassandra database objects to which permissions are applied.

The full list of available objects is:
  • ALL FUNCTIONS
  • ALL FUNCTIONS IN KEYSPACE keyspace_name
  • FUNCTION function_name
  • ALL KEYSPACES
  • KEYSPACE keyspace_name
  • TABLE table_name
  • ALL ROLES
  • ROLE role_name

Access control matrix

Cassandra resources have modelled hierarchy. Grant permissions on a resource higher in the chain to automatically grant that same permission on all resources lower down.
  • Data resources: ALL KEYSPACES > KEYSPACE > TABLE table_name.
  • Functions: Includes user defined functions and aggregates, ALL FUNCTIONS > KEYSPACE > FUNCTION function_name.
  • Roles: ALL ROLES > ROLE role_name.
Note: Types also belong to keyspaces but there are no privileges specific to user defined types.

Not all privileges apply to every type of resource. For instance, EXECUTE is only relevant in the context of functions and mbeans. Attempting to grant privileges on a resource that the permission is not applicable results in an error.

The following table shows the relationship between privileges and resources, and describes the resulting permissions.

Privilege Resource Permissions
ALL resource_name All operations that are applicable to the resource and its ancestors.
CREATE ALL KEYSPACES CREATE KEYSPACE and CREATE TABLE in any keyspace.
CREATE KEYSPACE keyspace_name CREATE TABLE in specified keyspace.
CREATE ALL FUNCTIONS CREATE FUNCTION in any keyspace and CREATE AGGREGATE in any keyspace.
CREATE ALL FUNCTIONS IN KEYSPACE keyspace_name CREATE FUNCTION and CREATE AGGREGATE in specified keyspace.
CREATE ALL ROLES CREATE ROLE
ALTER ALL KEYSPACES ALTER KEYSPACE and ALTER TABLE in any keyspace.
ALTER KEYSPACE keyspace_name ALTER KEYSPACE and ALTER TABLE in specified keyspace.
ALTER TABLE table_name ALTER TABLE specified table.
ALTER ALL FUNCTIONS CREATE FUNCTION and CREATE AGGREGATE, also replace existing.
ALTER ALL FUNCTIONS IN KEYSPACE keyspace_name CREATE FUNCTION and CREATE AGGREGATE: , also replace existing in specified keyspace
ALTER FUNCTION function_name CREATE FUNCTION and CREATE AGGREGATE, also replace existing.
ALTER ALL ROLES ALTER ROLE on any role
ALTER ROLE role_name ALTER ROLE specified role.
DROP ALL KEYSPACES DROP KEYSPACE and DROP TABLE in any keyspace
DROP KEYSPACE keyspace_name DROP TABLE in specified keyspace
DROP TABLE table_name DROP TABLE specified.
DROP ALL FUNCTIONS DROP FUNCTION and DROP AGGREGATE in any keyspace.
DROP ALL FUNCTIONS IN KEYSPACE keyspace_name DROP FUNCTION and DROP AGGREGATE in specified keyspace.
DROP FUNCTION function_name DROP FUNCTION specified function.
DROP ALL ROLES DROP ROLE on any role.
DROP ROLE role_name DROP ROLE specified role.
SELECT ALL KEYSPACES SELECT on any table.
SELECT KEYSPACE keyspace_name SELECT on any table in specified keyspace.
SELECT TABLE table_name SELECT on specified table.
SELECT ALL MBEANS Call getter methods on any mbean.
SELECT MBEANS pattern Call getter methods on any mbean matching a wildcard pattern.
SELECT MBEAN mbean_name Call getter methods on named mbean.
MODIFY ALL KEYSPACES INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and TRUNCATE on any table.
MODIFY KEYSPACE keyspace_name INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and TRUNCATE on any table in specified keyspace.
MODIFY TABLE table_name INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and TRUNCATE on specified table.
MODIFY ALL MBEANS Call setter methods on any mbean.
MODIFY MBEANS pattern Call setter methods on any mbean matching a wildcard pattern.
MODIFY MBEAN mbean_name Call setter methods on named mbean.
AUTHORIZE ALL KEYSPACES GRANT PERMISSION and REVOKE PERMISSION on any table.
AUTHORIZE KEYSPACE keyspace_name GRANT PERMISSION and REVOKE PERMISSION on any table in specified keyspace.
AUTHORIZE TABLE table_name GRANT PERMISSION and REVOKE PERMISSION on specified table.
AUTHORIZE ALL FUNCTIONS GRANT PERMISSION and REVOKE PERMISSION on any function.
AUTHORIZE ALL FUNCTIONS IN KEYSPACE keyspace_name GRANT PERMISSION and REVOKE PERMISSION in specified keyspace.
AUTHORIZE FUNCTION function_name GRANT PERMISSION and REVOKE PERMISSION on specified function.
AUTHORIZE ALL ROLES GRANT ROLE and REVOKE ROLE on any role.
AUTHORIZE ROLES GRANT ROLE and REVOKE ROLE on specified roles
DESCRIBE ALL ROLES LIST ROLES on all roles or only roles granted to another, specified role.
DESCRIBE ALL MBEANS Retrieve metadata about any mbean from the platform's MBeanServer.
EXECUTE ALL FUNCTIONS SELECT, INSERT and UPDATE using any function, and use of any function in CREATE AGGREGATE.
EXECUTE ALL FUNCTIONS IN KEYSPACE keyspace_name SELECT, INSERT and UPDATE using any function in specified keyspace and use of any function in keyspace in CREATE AGGREGATE.
EXECUTE FUNCTION function_name SELECT, INSERT and UPDATE using specified function and use of the function in CREATE AGGREGATE.
role_name resource_name Roles are a collection of privileges; grant all the privileges in a role on a any resource.

Examples

In most environments, user authentication is handled by a plug-in that verifies users credentials against an external directory service such as LDAP. The CQL role is mapped to the external group by matching the role name to a group name. For simplicity, these examples use internal users.

Give the role coach permission to perform SELECT queries on all tables in all keyspaces:

GRANT SELECT ON ALL KEYSPACES TO coach;

Give the role manager permission to perform INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE and TRUNCATE queries on all tables in the field keyspace.

GRANT MODIFY ON KEYSPACE field TO manager;

Give the role coach permission to perform ALTER KEYSPACE queries on the cycling keyspace, and also ALTER TABLE, CREATE INDEX and DROP INDEX queries on all tables in cycling keyspace:

GRANT ALTER ON KEYSPACE cycling TO coach;

Give the role coach permission to run all types of queries on cycling.name table.

GRANT ALL PERMISSIONS ON cycling.name TO coach;

Create an administrator role with full access to cycling.

GRANT ALL ON KEYSPACE cycling TO cycling_admin;