Getting statistics and metrics

Understanding the performance characteristics of a Cassandra cluster is critical to diagnosing issues and planning capacity.

Understanding the performance characteristics of a Cassandra cluster is critical to diagnosing issues and planning capacity. Use DataStax tools and a Java Console (JConsole) to get node and cluster statistics.

Cassandra exposes a number of statistics and management operations via Java Management Extensions (JMX). JMX is a Java technology that supplies tools for managing and monitoring Java applications and services. Any statistic or operation that a Java application has exposed as an MBean can then be monitored or manipulated using JMX.

JMX). JMX is a Java technology that supplies tools for managing and monitoring Java applications and services. Any statistic or operation that a Java application has exposed as an MBean can then be monitored or manipulated using JMX.

During normal operation, Cassandra outputs information and statistics that you can monitor using JMX-compliant tools, such as:

Using the same tools, you can perform certain administrative commands and operations such as flushing caches or doing a node repair.

Using nodetool

Get statistics using nodetool commands.

The nodetool utility is a command-line interface for monitoring a cluster and performing routine database operations. It is typically run from an operational node.

The nodetool utility provides commands for viewing detailed metrics for tables, server metrics, and compaction statistics:
  • nodetool tablestats displays statistics for each table and keyspace.
  • nodetool tablehistograms provides statistics about a table, including read/write latency, row size, column count, and number of SSTables.
  • nodetool netstats provides statistics about network operations and connections.
  • nodetool tpstats provides statistics about the number of active, pending, and completed tasks for each stage of database operations by thread pool.
This example shows the output from nodetool proxyhistograms after running 4,500 insert statements and 45,000 select statements on a three ccm node-cluster on a local computer.
nodetool proxyhistograms
proxy histograms
Percentile      Read Latency     Write Latency     Range Latency
                    (micros)          (micros)          (micros)
50%                  1502.50            375.00            446.00
75%                  1714.75            420.00            498.00
95%                 31210.25            507.00            800.20
98%                 36365.00            577.36            948.40
99%                 36365.00            740.60           1024.39
Min                   616.00            230.00            311.00
Max                 36365.00          55726.00          59247.00
For a summary of the ring and its current state of general health, use nodetool status. For example:
nodetool status
Note: Ownership information does not include topology; for complete information, specify a keyspace
Datacenter: datacenter1
=======================
Status=Up/Down
|/ State=Normal/Leaving/Joining/Moving
--  Address    Load       Tokens  Owns    Host ID                               Rack
UN  127.0.0.1  47.66 KB   1       33.3%   aaa1b7c1-6049-4a08-ad3e-3697a0e30e10  rack1
UN  127.0.0.2  47.67 KB   1       33.3%   1848c369-4306-4874-afdf-5c1e95b8732e  rack1
UN  127.0.0.3  47.67 KB   1       33.3%   49578bf1-728f-438d-b1c1-d8dd644b6f7f  rack1

Using JConsole

JConsole is a JMX-compliant tool for monitoring Java applications. JConsole is included with Sun JDK 5.0 and later. JConsole consumes the JMX metrics and operations exposed by DataStax Enterprise and displays them in a well-organized GUI. For each node monitored, JConsole provides these six separate tab views:
Overview
Displays overview information about the Java VM and monitored values.
Memory
Displays information about memory use.
Threads
Displays information about thread use.
Classes
Displays information about class loading.
VM Summary
Displays information about the Java Virtual Machine (VM).
Mbeans
Displays information about MBeans.

The Overview and Memory tabs contain information that is very useful for developers. The Memory tab allows you to compare heap and non-heap memory usage, and provides a control to immediately perform Java garbage collection.

For specific database metrics and operations, the most important area of JConsole is the MBeans tab. This tab lists the following MBeans:
org.apache.cassandra.auth
Includes permissions cache.
org.apache.cassandra.db
Includes caching, table metrics, and compaction.
org.apache.cassandra.internal
Internal server operations such as gossip, hinted handoff, and Memtable values.
org.apache.cassandra.metrics
Includes metrics on CQL, clients, keyspaces, read repair, storage, threadpools, and other topics.
org.apache.cassandra.net
Inter-node communication including FailureDetector, MessagingService, and StreamingManager.
org.apache.cassandra.request
Tasks related to read, write, and replication operations.
org.apache.cassandra.service
Includes GCInspector.

When you select an MBean in the tree, its MBeanInfo and MBean Descriptor are displayed on the right, and any attributes, operations or notifications appear in the tree below it. For example, selecting and expanding the org.apache.cassandra.db MBean to view available actions for a table results in a display like the following:

If you choose to monitor DataStax Enterprise using JConsole, keep in mind that JConsole consumes a significant amount of system resources. For this reason, DataStax recommends running JConsole on a remote machine rather than on the same host as a DataStax Enterprise node.

The JConsole CompactionManagerMBean exposes compaction metrics that can indicate when you need to add capacity to your cluster.

Using nodetool sjk

Use nodetool sjk mx to gather database information from MBeans.

Nodetool includes the open source Swiss Java Knife as a built-in command, nodetool sjk, for troubleshooting. This section focuses on using the mx subcommand to get and set JMX MBean values.

Attention: The nodetool sjk mxdump command tries to print all exposed MBeans to the console. The command can fail if it encounters an improperly formatted MBean. To interact with a specific list of MBeans, use the nodetool sjk mx command.

Listing MBean names

To get values from the command line, first get the complete name of the MBean.

Following is an example of how to use jmxterm to dump the full list of JMX MBeans from a database node:
echo "beans" | java -jar jmxterm-1.0.0-uber.jar -l localhost:7199 -n 2>&1
Tip: Only perform this operation once because the list can be large or search MBeans with particular names in the output by redirecting the result to another filter. For example to find MBeans that contain the word commitlog:
echo "beans" | java -jar /tmp/jmxterm-1.0.0-uber.jar -l localhost:7199 -n 2>&1 | grep -i commitlog
The results provide the exact MBean strings to use in nodetool sjk mx command.
com.datastax.bdp.advrep.v2.metrics:name=CommitLogMessagesRead,type=ReplicationLog
com.datastax.bdp.advrep.v2.metrics:name=CommitLogsDeleted,type=ReplicationLog
com.datastax.bdp.advrep.v2.metrics:name=CommitLogsToConsume,type=ReplicationLog
org.apache.cassandra.db:type=Commitlog
org.apache.cassandra.metrics:name=CompletedTasks,type=CommitLog
org.apache.cassandra.metrics:name=PendingTasks,type=CommitLog
org.apache.cassandra.metrics:name=TotalCommitLogSize,type=CommitLog
org.apache.cassandra.metrics:name=WaitingOnCommit,type=CommitLog
org.apache.cassandra.metrics:name=WaitingOnSegmentAllocation,type=CommitLog

Getting the MBean options and values

Use the MBean information option to show available values. For example, to show the options available for TotalCommitLogSize from the previous results, use the complete name:
nodetool sjk mx -b "org.apache.cassandra.metrics:name=TotalCommitLogSize,type=CommitLog" -mi
org.apache.cassandra.metrics:type=CommitLog,name=TotalCommitLogSize
org.apache.cassandra.metrics.CassandraMetricsRegistry$JmxGauge
 - Information on the management interface of the MBean
 (A) Value : java.lang.Object
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (O) objectName() : javax.management.ObjectName
  - Operation exposed for management
The MBean has a simple value. To read the single number, run the following command:
nodetool sjk mx -b "org.apache.cassandra.metrics:name=TotalCommitLogSize,type=CommitLog" -f Value -mg
org.apache.cassandra.metrics:type=CommitLog,name=TotalCommitLogSize
67108864
Note: SJK is case-sensitive, enter the names exactly.
To check on a more complex metric such as latency, find out how many values are available by using -mi option:
nodetool sjk mx -b "org.apache.cassandra.metrics:name=Latency,scope=Read,type=ClientRequest" -mi
org.apache.cassandra.metrics:type=ClientRequest,scope=Read,name=Latency
org.apache.cassandra.metrics.CassandraMetricsRegistry$JmxTimer
 - Information on the management interface of the MBean
 (A) Max : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) Min : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) Mean : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) StdDev : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) 95thPercentile : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) DurationUnit : String
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) 50thPercentile : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) 75thPercentile : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) 98thPercentile : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) 99thPercentile : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) 999thPercentile : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) OneMinuteRate : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) FifteenMinuteRate : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) FiveMinuteRate : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) MeanRate : double
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) RateUnit : String
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (A) Count : long
  - Attribute exposed for management
 (O) values() : long[]
  - Operation exposed for management
 (O) objectName() : javax.management.ObjectName
  - Operation exposed for management
Then to read out a single value from this metric, use the following command:
nodetool sjk mx -b "org.apache.cassandra.metrics:name=Latency,scope=Read,type=ClientRequest" -f 99thPercentile -mg
org.apache.cassandra.metrics:type=ClientRequest,scope=Read,name=Latency
3379.391