Upgrading DataStax Enterprise 5.1 to 6.7 or 6.8

The upgrade process for DataStax Enterprise (DSE) provides minimal downtime (ideally zero). During this process, upgrade and restart one node at a time while other nodes continue to operate online. With a few exceptions, the cluster continues to work as though it were on the earlier version of DataStax Enterprise until all of the nodes in the cluster are upgraded.

Due to a serious bug which affects DSE 6.8.7 and DSE 6.8.8, DataStax recommends against upgrading to those versions at this time. If you have already upgraded to these versions, please EITHER set zerocopy_streaming_enabled=false in cassandra.yaml and perform a rolling restart, OR run upgradesstables on all nodes in your cluster before adding new nodes, running repair, or restoring from backups, or do BOTH. This bug is addressed in DSE 6.8.9.

Read and understand these instructions before upgrading. Carefully reviewing the planning and upgrade instructions can prevent errors and data loss. In addition, review the DSE 6.8 release notes for all changes before upgrading.

DSE 6.8 has a new metadata_directory property that holds information about the local node and all peers. metadata_directory keeps the same information that system.local and system.peers had.

DataStax Enterprise and Apache Cassandra® configuration files

DataStax Enterprise configuration files
Configuration file Installer-Services and package installations Installer-No Services and tarball installations


/etc/default/dse (systemd) or /etc/init.d/ (SystemV)

N/A Node type is set via command line flags.



















Cassandra configuration files

Configuration file

Installer-Services and package installations

Installer-No Services and tarball installations



















Tomcat server configuration file
Configuration file Installer-Services and package installations Installer-No Services and tarball installations




Upgrade order

Upgrade nodes in this order:

  1. In multiple datacenter clusters, upgrade every node in one datacenter before upgrading another datacenter.

  2. Upgrade the seed nodes within a datacenter first.

  3. DSE Analytics datacenters

    1. For DSE Analytics nodes using DSE Hadoop, upgrade the Job Tracker node first. Then upgrade Hadoop nodes, followed by Spark nodes.

  4. Transactional/DSE Graph datacenters

  5. DSE Search nodes or datacenters

Back Up your Existing Installation

DataStax recommends backing up your data prior to any version upgrade.

A backup provides the ability to revert and restore all the data used in the previous version if necessary. For manual backup instructions, see Backing up and restoring DSE.

OpsCenter provides a Backup Service that manages enterprise-wide backup and restore operations for DataStax Enterprise clusters and is highly recommended over any manual backup procedure. Ensure you use a compatible version of OpsCenter for your DSE version.

Upgrade SSTables

Be certain to upgrade SSTables on your nodes both before and after upgrading. Failure to upgrade SSTables will result in severe performance penalties and possible data loss.

Version-Specific Notes

DSE Search changes: As of DSE 6.7.7 and later, the Solr timeAllowed parameter is enabled by default to prevent long running shard queries, such as complex facets and Boolean queries, from using system resources after they have timed out from the DSE Search coordinator. For details, see Limiting queries by time.

DSE Search changes: As of DSE 6.8.0, unbounded facet searches are no longer allowed using facet.limit=-1. The maximum facet limit value is 20,000 as set by solr.max.facet.limit.size. While the facet limit size can be overriden using -Dsolr.max.facet.limit.size in jvm[ 8 | 11 ]-server.options, depending upon your JVM version, it is not recommended.

Upgrade Restrictions and Limitations

Restrictions and limitations apply while a cluster is in a partially upgraded state. The cluster continues to work as though it were on the earlier version of DataStax Enterprise until all of the nodes in the cluster are upgraded.

General Restrictions

  • Do not enable new features.

  • Ensure OpsCenter compatibility.

    OpsCenter version DSE version


    6.8, 6.7, 6.0, 5.1


    DSE 6.0


    6.0, 5.1, 5.0 (EOL)


    5.1, 5.0, 5.0 (EOL)


    5.0 (EOL), 4.8 (EOSL), 4.7 (EOSL)

  • Do not run nodetool repair.

  • Stop the OpsCenter Repair Service if enabled: 6.8.

  • During the upgrade, do not bootstrap new nodes or decommission existing nodes.

  • Do not issue TRUNCATE or DDL related queries during the upgrade process.

  • Do not alter schemas for any workloads.

  • Complete the cluster-wide upgrade before the expiration of gc_grace_seconds (default 10 days) to ensure any repairs complete successfully.

  • If the DSE Performance Service was disabled before the upgrade, do not enable it during the upgrade. See DSE Performance Service: 5.1 | OpsCenter 6.8.

Nodes on different versions might show a schema disagreement during an upgrade.

Restrictions for Nodes Using Security

  • Do not change security credentials or permissions until the upgrade is complete on all nodes.

  • If you are not already using Kerberos, do not set up Kerberos authentication before upgrading. First upgrade the cluster, and then set up Kerberos.

Restrictions for DSE Analytics Nodes

Spark versions change between major DSE versions. DSE release notes [5.x | 6.8.x] indicate which version of Spark is used.

When upgrading to a major version of DSE, all nodes in a DSE datacenter that run Spark must be on the same version of Spark and the Spark jobs must be compiled for that version. Each datacenter acting as a Spark cluster must be on the same upgraded DSE version before reinitiating Spark jobs.

In the case where Spark jobs run against Graph keyspaces, you must update all of the nodes in the cluster first to avoid Spark jobs failing.

Restrictions for DSE Advanced Replication Nodes

Upgrades are supported only for DSE Advanced Replication V2.

Driver Version Impacts

Be sure to check driver compatibility. Depending on the driver version, you might need to recompile your client application code.

DataStax drivers come in two types:

  • DataStax drivers for DataStax Enterprise — for use by DSE 4.8 and later

  • DataStax drivers for Apache Cassandra® — for use by Apache Cassandra and DSE 4.7 and earlier

    While the DataStax drivers for Apache Cassandra drivers can connect to DSE 5.0 and later clusters, DataStax strongly recommends upgrading to the DSE drivers. The DSE drivers provide functionality for all DataStax Enterprise features.

During upgrades, you might experience driver-specific impact when clusters have mixed versions of drivers. If your cluster has mixed versions, the protocol version is negotiated with the first host to which the driver connects, although certain drivers, such as Java 4.x/2.x automatically select a protocol version that works across nodes. To avoid driver version incompatibility during upgrades, use one of these workarounds:

  • Protocol version: Set the protocol version explicitly in your application at start up. Switch to the Java driver to the new protocol version only after the upgrade is complete on all nodes in the cluster.

  • Initial contact points: Ensure that the list of initial contact points contains only hosts with the oldest DSE version or protocol version. For example, the initial contact points contain only protocol version 2.

For details on protocol version negotiation, see protocol versions with mixed clusters in the Java driver version you’re using, for example, Java driver.

Starting January 2020, you can use the same DataStax driver for Apache Cassandra (OSS) and DataStax Enterprise. DataStax has unified drivers to avoid user confusion and enhance the OSS drivers with some of the features in the DSE drivers. For more information, see the Better Drivers for Cassandra® blog.

Advanced Preparation for Upgrading DSE Search Nodes

Before continuing, complete all the advanced preparation steps on DSE Search nodes while DSE 5.1 is still running.

  1. Ensure all use of HTTP API writes are changed to use CQL commands for updates and inserts.

  2. Edit the search index config and make these changes, as needed. See Search index config for valid options to change query behavior for search indexes.

    • Remove the unsupported dataDir option. You can still set the location of search indexes.

    • Remove mergePolicy, maxMergeDocs, and mergeFactor. For example:


      Use mergePolicyFactory instead, and add mergeScheduler:

      <mergeScheduler class="org.apache.lucene.index.ConcurrentMergeScheduler">
          <int name="maxThreadCount">16</int>
          <int name="maxMergeCount">32</int>
      <mergePolicyFactory class="org.apache.solr.index.TieredMergePolicyFactory">
        <int name="maxMergeAtOnce">10</int>
        <int name="segmentsPerTier">10</int>
    • Remove any instance of ExtractingRequestHandler.

    • Remove DSENRTCachingDirectoryFactory. Change:

      <directoryFactory name="DirectoryFactory" class="com.datastax.bdp.search.solr.DSENRTCachingDirectoryFactory"/>


      <directoryFactory name="DirectoryFactory" class="solr.StandardDirectoryFactory"/>
  3. Ensure that the catalina.properties and context.xml files are present in the Tomcat conf dir.

    DSE does not start after the upgrade if those files are missing.

    The default location of the Tomcat/conf directory depends on the type of installation:

    • Package installations: /etc/dse/tomcat/conf

    • Tarball installations: <installation_location>/resources/tomcat/conf

  4. If earlier DSE versions use a custom configuration for the Solr UI web.xml, change:



  5. The StallMetrics MBean is removed.

Advanced Preparation for Upgrading DSE Graph Nodes

Ensure that edge label names and property key names use only the supported characters. Edge label names and property key names allow only [a-zA-Z0-9], underscore, hyphen, and period. In earlier versions, edge label names and property key names allowed nearly unrestricted Unicode:

  • schema.describe() displays the entire schema, even if it contains illegal names.

  • In-place upgrades allow existing schemas with invalid edge label names and property key names.

  • Schema elements with illegal names cannot be updated or added.

Advanced Preparation for Upgrading DSE Analytics Nodes

Before upgrading DSE Analytics nodes:

  1. If you programmatically set the shuffle parameter, you must change the code for applications that use conf.set("spark.shuffle.service.port", port). Instead, use dse spark-submit which automatically sets the correct service port based on the authentication state. See Configuring Spark for more information.

  2. If DSEFS is enabled, copy CFS hivemetastore directory to dse:

    DSE_HOME/bin/dse hadoop fs -cp cfs://node_ip_address/user/spark/warehouse/ dsefs://node_ip_address/user/spark/warehouse/
  3. Cassandra File System (CFS) is removed. Remove the cfs and cfs_archive keyspaces before upgrading. See the From CFS to DSEFS blog post and the Copying data from CFS to DSEFS documentation for more information.

    DROP KEYSPACE cfs_archive
  4. Make sure any use of the SPARK_LOCAL_DIRS and SPARK_EXECUTOR_DIRS environment variables match their use as described in Setting environment variables.

  5. For applications to use the compatible Spark Jobserver API in DataStax repository, migrate jobs that extend from SparkHiveJob and SparkSqlJob to SparkSessionJob. See example in the DemoSparkSessionJob in the demos directory.

    The default location of the demos directory depends on the type of installation:

    • Package installations: /usr/share/dse/demos

    • Tarball installations: <installation_location>/demos

Preparing to Upgrade

Follow these steps to prepare each node for the upgrade:

The DataStax Installer is not supported for DSE 6.0 and later. To upgrade from DSE 5.x that was installed with the DataStax Installer, you must first change from a standalone installer installation to a tarball or package installation for the same DSE version. See Upgrading to DSE 6.0 or DSE 6.7 from DataStax Installer installations.

These steps are performed in your current version and use DSE 5.1 documentation.

  1. Upgrade to the latest patch release on your current version. Fixes included in the latest patch release can simplify the upgrade process.

    Get the current DSE version:

    bin/dse -v
  2. Familiarize yourself with the changes and features in the new release:

    • DataStax Enterprise 6.8 release notes.

    • General upgrading advice for any version. Be sure to read 6.8 NEWS.txt all the way back to your current version.

    • DataStax Enterprise changes in 6.8 CHANGES.txt.

    • DataStax driver changes.

  3. Before upgrading, be sure that each node has adequate free disk space.

    Determine current DSE data disk space usage:

    sudo du -sh /var/lib/cassandra/data/
    3.9G	/var/lib/cassandra/data/

    Determine available disk space:

    sudo df -hT /
    Filesystem     Type  Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
    /dev/sda1      ext4   59G   16G   41G  28% /

    The required space depends on the compaction strategy. See Disk space.

  4. Replace ITriggers and custom interfaces.

    All custom implementations, including the following interfaces, must be replaced with supported implementations when upgrading to DSE 6.x:

    • The org.apache.cassandra.triggers.ITrigger interface was modified from augment to augmentNonBlocking for non-blocking internal architecture. Updated trigger implementations must be provided on upgraded nodes. If unsure, drop all existing triggers before upgrading. To check for existing triggers:

      SELECT * FROM system_schema.triggers;
      DROP TRIGGER trigger_name ON keyspace_name.table_name;
    • The org.apache.cassandra.index.Index interface was modified to comply with the core storage engine changes. Updated implementations are required. If unsure, drop all existing custom secondary indexes before upgrading, except DSE Search indexes, which do not need to be replaced. To check for existing indexes:

      SELECT * FROM system_schema.indexes;
      DROP INDEX index_name;
    • The org.apache.cassandra.cql3.QueryHandler, org.apache.cassandra.db.commitlog.CommitLogReadHandler, and other extension points have been changed. See QueryHandlers.

      For help contact the DataStax Support team.

  5. Support for Thrift-compatible tables (COMPACT STORAGE) is dropped. Before upgrading, migrate all non-system tables that have COMPACT STORAGE to CQL table format:

    cqlsh -e 'DESCRIBE FULL SCHEMA;' > schema_file
    cat schema_file | while read -d $';\n' line ; do
      if echo "$line"|grep 'COMPACT STORAGE' 2>&1 > /dev/null ; then
        TBL="`echo $line|sed -e 's|^CREATE TABLE \([^ ]*\) .*$|\1|'`"
        if echo "$TBL"|egrep -v '^system' 2>&1 > /dev/null; then
          echo "ALTER TABLE $TBL DROP COMPACT STORAGE;" >> schema-drop-list
    cqlsh -f schema-drop-list

    The script above dumps the complete DSE schema to schema_file, uses grep to find lines containing COMPACT STORAGE, and then writes only those table names to schema-drop-list along with the required ALTER TABLE commands. The schema-drop-list file is then read by cqlsh which runs the ALTER TABLE commands contained therein.

    DSE will not start if tables using COMPACT STORAGE are present.

  6. Upgrade the SSTables on each node to ensure that all SSTables are on the current version:

    nodetool upgradesstables

    Failure to upgrade SSTables when required results in a significant performance impact and increased disk usage.

    Use the --jobs option to set the number of SSTables that upgrade simultaneously. The default setting is 2, which minimizes impact on the cluster. Set to 0 to use all available compaction threads. DataStax recommends running the upgradesstables command on one node at a time or, when using racks, one rack at a time.

    If the SSTables are already on the current version, the command returns immediately and no action is taken.

  7. Ensure that keyspace replication factors are correct for your environment:

    cqlsh --execute "DESCRIBE KEYSPACE keyspace-name;" | grep "replication"
    CREATE KEYSPACE keyspace-name WITH replication = {'class': 'NetworkTopologyStrategy, 'replication_factor': '3'}  AND durable_writes = true;
  8. Verify the Java runtime version and upgrade to the recommended version.

    java -version
    openjdk version "1.8.0_222"
    OpenJDK Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_222-8u222-b10-1ubuntu1~18.04.1-b10)
    OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.222-b10, mixed mode)
  9. Run nodetool repair to ensure that data on each replica is consistent with data on other nodes:

    nodetool repair -pr
  10. Install the libaio package for optimal performance.

    RHEL platforms:

    sudo yum install libaio


    sudo apt-get install libaio1
  11. Back up any customized configuration files since they may be overwritten with default values during installation of the new version.

    If you backed up your installation using instructions in Backing up and restoring DSE, your original configuration files are included in the archive.

Upgrade Steps

Follow these steps on each node in the recommended order. The upgrade process requires upgrading and restarting one node at a time.

These steps are performed in your upgraded version and use DSE 6.7 or DSE 6.8 documentation depending upon your target version.

  1. Flush the commit log of the current installation:

    nodetool drain
  2. Stop the node:

    • Package installations:

      sudo service dse stop
    • Tarball installations:

      $ installation_dir/bin/dse cassandra-stop
  3. Use the appropriate method to install the new product version on a supported platform:

  4. To configure the new version:

    1. Compare changes in the new configuration files with the backup configuration files after the upgrade but before restarting, remove deprecated settings, and update any new settings if required.

      You must use the new configuration files that are generated from the upgrade installation. Copy any parameters needed from your old configuration files into these new files.

      Do not replace the newly-generated configuration files with the old files.

      Use the DSE yaml_diff tool (6.8) to compare backup YAML files with the upgraded YAML files:

      cd /usr/share/dse/tools/yamls
      ./yaml_diff path/to/yaml-file-old path/to/yaml-file-new
      - AllowAllAuthenticator
      + com.datastax.bdp.cassandra.auth.DseAuthenticator
      - AllowAllAuthorizer
      + com.datastax.bdp.cassandra.auth.DseAuthorizer
      - 2000
      + 120000

      cassandra.yaml changes

      General deprecated settings

      Deprecated cassandra.yaml settings:

      Remove these options:


      RPC settings

      Deprecated cassandra.yaml settings:


      Replacement settings:


      Memtable settings

      Deprecated cassandra.yaml settings:


      Replacement setting:


      Changed setting:

      memtable_allocation_type: offheap_objects

      User-defined function(UDF) settings

      Deprecated cassandra.yaml settings:


      Replacement settings:

      user_defined_function_warn_micros: 500
      user_defined_function_fail_micros: 10000
      user_defined_function_warn_heap_mb: 200
      user_defined_function_fail_heap_mb: 500
      user_function_timeout_policy: die        `

      Settings are in microseconds. The new timeouts are not equivalent to the deprecated settings.

      Internode encryptions settings

      Deprecated cassandra.yaml setting:

          store_type: JKS

      Replacement settings:

          keystore_type: JKS
          truststore_type: JKS

      Valid type options are JKS, JCEKS, PKCS11, or PKCS12 for keystore_type, and JKS, JCEKS, or PKCS12 for truststore_type.

      For security reasons, DSE 6.8 only allows the TLS encryption option protocol.

          protocol: TLS

      Client-to-node encryption settings

      Deprecated cassandra.yaml settings:

          store_type: JKS
      Replacement settings:
          keystore_type: JKS
          truststore_type: JKS

      Valid type options are JKS, JCEKS, PKCS11, or PKCS12 for keystore_type, and JKS, JCEKS, or PKCS12 for truststore_type.

      For security reasons, DSE 6.8 only allows the TLS encryption option protocol:

          protocol: TLS

      Credential cache settings

      Deprecated cassandra.yaml settings:

      Remove these options:

      Caches are optimized without those settings.

      dse.yaml changes Spark resource and encryption options

      Deprecated dse.yaml setting:

        store_type: JKS

      Replacement settings:

      JKS truststore_type: JKS

      Valid type options are JKS, JCEKS, PKCS11, or PKCS12 for keystore_type, and JKS, JCEKS, or PKCS12 for truststore_type.

      DSE Search node changes:

      Deprecated dse.yaml settings:

      Remove these options:


      DSE 6.x does not start with those options present.

  5. When upgrading DSE to versions earlier than 5.1.16, 6.0.8, or 6.7.4 inclusive, if any tables are using DSE Tiered Storage, remove all txn_compaction log files from second-level tiers and lower. For example, given the following dse.yaml configuration, remove txn_compaction log files from /mnt2 and /mnt3 directories:

                - paths:
                    - /mnt1
                - paths:
                    - /mnt2
                - paths:
                    - /mnt3

    The following example removes the files using the find command:

    find /mnt2 -name "*_txn_compaction_*.log" -type f -delete &&
    find /mnt3 -name "*_txn_compaction_*.log" -type f -delete

    Failure to complete this step may result in data loss.

  6. Remove any previously installed JTS JAR files from the CLASSPATHS in your DSE installation. JTS (Java Topology Suite) is distributed with DSE 6.7.

  7. Start the node.

  8. Verify that the upgraded datacenter names match the datacenter names in the keyspace schema definition:

    • Get the node’s datacenter name:

      nodetool status | grep "Datacenter"
      Datacenter: datacenter-name
    • Verify that the node’s datacenter name matches the datacenter name for a keyspace:

      cqlsh --execute "DESCRIBE KEYSPACE keyspace-name;" | grep "replication"
      CREATE KEYSPACE keyspace-name WITH replication = {'class': 'NetworkTopologyStrategy, 'datacenter-name': '3'};
  9. Review the logs for warnings, errors, and exceptions:

    grep -w 'WARNING\|ERROR\|exception' /var/log/cassandra/*.log

    Warnings, errors, and exceptions are frequently found in the logs when starting an upgraded node. Some of these log entries are informational to help you execute specific upgrade-related steps. If you find unexpected warnings, errors, or exceptions, contact DataStax Support.

    Non-standard log locations are configured in dse-env.sh.

  10. Repeat the upgrade process on each node in the cluster following the recommended order.

  11. After the entire cluster upgrade is complete: upgrade the SSTables on one node at a time or, when using racks, one rack at a time.

    Failure to upgrade SSTables when required results in a significant performance impact and increased disk usage and possible data loss. Upgrading is not complete until the SSTables are upgraded.

    nodetool upgradesstables

    Use the --jobs option to set the number of SSTables that upgrade simultaneously. The default setting is 2, which minimizes impact on the cluster. Set to 0 to use all available compaction threads. DataStax recommends running the upgradesstables command on one node at a time or, when using racks, one rack at a time.

    You can run the upgradesstables command before all the nodes are upgraded as long as you run the command on only one node at a time or, when using racks, one rack at a time. Running upgradesstables on too many nodes at once degrades performance.

General Post-Upgrade Steps

After all nodes are upgraded:

  1. If you use the OpsCenter Repair Service, turn on the Repair Service (6.8).

  2. If you encounter serialization-header errors, stop the node and repair them using the sstablescrub -e option:

    sstablescrub -e fix-only keyspace table

    For more details on serialization-header errors and repairs, see DSE 5.0 SSTables with UDTs corrupted after upgrading to DSE 5.1, 6.0, or 6.7

  3. DSE 6.8 introduces, and enables by default, the DSE Metrics Collector, a diagnostics information aggregator used to help facilitate DSE problem resolution. For more information on the DSE Metrics Collector, or to disable metrics collection, see DataStax Enterprise Metrics Collector (6.8).

Post-Upgrade Steps for DSE Search Nodes

For DSE Search nodes:

  1. The appender SolrValidationErrorAppender and the logger SolrValidationErrorLogger are no longer used and may safely be removed from logback.xml.

  2. In contrast to earlier versions, DataStax recommends accepting the new default value of 1024 for back_pressure_threshold_per_core (6.8) in dse.yaml. See Configuring and tuning indexing performance (6.8).

  3. Do a full reindex of all encrypted search indexes on each node in your cluster:

    dsetool reload_core keyspace_name.table_name distributed=false reindex=true deleteAll=true

    Plan sufficient time after the upgrade is complete to reindex with deleteAll=true on all nodes.

Post-Upgrade Steps for DSE Analytics Nodes

For DSE Analytics nodes:

  1. Check the replication factor for the dse_analytics keyspace, a new keyspace stores all DSE Analytics internal system data. DataStax recommends setting the replication strategy to NetworkTopologyStrategy (NTS) with a replication factor of at least 3 in each of DSE Analytics datacenters. If a datacenter has more nodes, a larger replication factor should be considered.

    To check the replication strategy and factor:

    cqlsh --execute "DESCRIBE KEYSPACE dse_analytics;" | grep "replication"
    CREATE KEYSPACE keyspace-name WITH replication = {'class': 'replication-strategy, 'datacenter-name': 'replication-factor'};
  2. If you are using Spark SQL tables, migrate them to the new Hive metastore format:

    dse client-tool spark metastore migrate --from 5.0.0 --to 6.7.0
  3. Spark Jobserver uses DSE custom version Ensure that applications use the compatible Spark Jobserver API from the DataStax repository.

Warning Messages During and after Upgrade

You can ignore some log messages that occur during and after an upgrade:

  • Some gremlin_server properties in earlier versions of DSE are no longer required. If properties exist in the dse.yaml file after upgrading, logs display warnings similar to:

    WARN  [main] 2017-08-31 12:25:30,523 GREMLIN DseWebSocketChannelizer.java:149 - Configuration for the org.apache.tinkerpop.gremlin.driver.ser.GraphSONMessageSerializerGremlinV1d0 serializer in dse.yaml overrides the DSE default - typically it is best to allow DSE to configure these.

    You can ignore these warnings or modify dse.yaml so that only the required gremlin server properties are present.

Locking DSE Package Versions

If you have upgraded a DSE package installation, then you can prevent future unintended upgrades.

RHEL yum installations

To hold a package at the current version:

  1. Install yum-versionlock (one-time operation):

    sudo yum install yum-versionlock
  2. Lock the current DSE version:

    sudo yum versionlock dse-*

To clear the version lock and enable upgrades:

sudo yum versionlock clear

For details, see the versionlock command.

Debian apt-get installations

To hold a package at the current version:

sudo apt-mark hold dse-*

To remove the version hold:

sudo apt-mark unhold dse-*

For details, see the apt-mark command.

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