cassandra-stress mixed

Interleave basic commands with configurable ratio and distribution. The cluster must first be populated by a write test.


cassandra-stress mixed [<arguments>]
Syntax conventions Description


Literal keyword.


Not literal.


Variable value. Replace with a valid option or user-defined value.

[ ]

Optional. Square brackets ( [ ] ) surround optional command arguments. Do not type the square brackets.

( )

Group. Parentheses ( ( ) ) identify a group to choose from. Do not type the parentheses.


Or. A vertical bar ( | ) separates alternative elements. Type any one of the elements. Do not type the vertical bar.


Repeatable. An ellipsis ( ... ) indicates that you can repeat the syntax element as often as required.

'<Literal string>'

Single quotation ( ' ) marks must surround literal strings in CQL statements. Use single quotation marks to preserve upper case.

{ <key>:<value> }

Map collection. Braces ( { } ) enclose map collections or key value pairs. A colon separates the key and the value.


Set, list, map, or tuple. Angle brackets ( < > ) enclose data types in a set, list, map, or tuple. Separate the data types with a comma.


End CQL statement. A semicolon ( ; ) terminates all CQL statements.

[ -- ]

Separate the command line options from the command arguments with two hyphens ( -- ). This syntax is useful when arguments might be mistaken for command line options.

' <<schema> ... </schema> >'

Search CQL only: Single quotation marks ( ' ) surround an entire XML schema declaration.


Search CQL only: Identify the entity and literal value to overwrite the XML element in the schema and solrconfig files.


Command options


Set the consistency level to use during cassandra-stress. Options are ONE, QUORUM, LOCAL_QUORUM, EACH_QUORUM, ALL, and ANY. Default is LOCAL_ONE.


Distribution clustering runs of operations of the same kind.


Specify the time to run, in seconds, minutes or hours.


Specify a standard error of the mean; when this value is reached, cassandra-stress will end. Default is 0.02.


Specify a minimum number of iterations to run before accepting uncertainly convergence.


Specify a maximum number of iterations to run before accepting uncertainly convergence.


Specify the number of operations to run.


Do not warmup the process, do a cold start.


Specify what operations to run and the number of each. (only with the user option)


Designate the YAML file to use with cassandra-stress. (only with the user option)


Truncate the table created during cassandra-stress. Options are never, once, or always. Default is never.

Command arguments


Column details, such as size and count distribution, data generator, names, and comparator.


-col names=? [slice] [super=?] [comparator=?] [timestamp=?] [size=DIST(?)]
-col [n=DIST(?)] [slice] [super=?] [comparator=?] [timestamp=?] [size=DIST(?)]

How to handle errors when encountered during stress testing.


-errors [retries=N] [ignore] [skip-read-validation]
  • retries=<N> Number of times to try each operation before failing.

  • ignore Do not fail on errors.

  • skip-read-validation Skip read validation and message output.


Graph results of cassandra-stress tests. Multiple tests can be graphed together.


-graph file=? [revision=?] [title=?] [op=?]

Insert specific options relating to various methods for batching and splitting partition updates.


-insert [revisit=DIST(?)] [visits=DIST(?)] partitions=DIST(?) [batchtype=?] select-ratio=DIST(?) row-population-ratio=DIST(?)

Where to log progress and the interval to use.


-log [level=?] [no-summary] [file=?] [hdrfile=?] [interval=?] [no-settings] [no-progress] [show-queries] [query-log-file=?]

Thrift or CQL with options.


-mode thrift [smart] [user=?] [password=?]
-mode native [unprepared] cql3 [compression=?] [port=?] [user=?] [password=?] [auth-provider=?] [maxPending=?] [connectionsPerHost=?] [protocolVersion=?]
-mode simplenative [prepared] cql3 [port=?]

Nodes to connect to.


-node [datacenter=?] [whitelist] [file=?] []

Population distribution and intra-partition visit order.


-pop seq=? [no-wrap] [read-lookback=DIST(?)] [contents=?]
-pop [dist=DIST(?)] [contents=?]

Specify port for connecting Cassandra nodes. Port can be specified for Cassandra native protocol, Thrift protocol or a JMX port for retrieving statistics.


-port [native=?] [thrift=?] [jmx=?]

Set the rate using the following options:

-rate threads=<N> [throttle=<N>] [fixed=<N>]


  • threads=<N> number of clients to run concurrently.

  • throttle=<N> throttle operations per second across all clients to a maximum rate (or less) with no implied schedule. Default is 0.

  • fixed=<N> expect fixed rate of operations per second across all clients with implied schedule. Default is 0.


-rate [threads>=<N>] [threads<=<N>] [auto]


  • threads>=<N> run at least this many clients concurrently. Default is 4.

  • threads⇐<N> run at most this many clients concurrently. Default is 1000.

  • auto stop increasing threads once throughput saturates.


Replication settings, compression, compaction, and so on.


-schema [replication(?)] [keyspace=?] [compaction(?)] [compression=?]

Specify a server to send the stress command to.


-sendto <host>

Token range settings.


-tokenrange [no-wrap] [split-factor=?] [savedata=?]

Custom transport factories.


-transport [factory=?] [truststore=?] [truststore-password=?] [keystore=?] [keystore-password=?] [ssl-protocol=?] [ssl-alg=?] [store-type=?] [ssl-ciphers=?]

Run a mixed workload

When running a mixed workload, you must escape parentheses, greater-than and less-than signs, and other such things. This example invokes a workload that is one-quarter writes and three-quarters reads.

$ cassandra-stress mixed ratio\(write=1,read=3\) n=100000 cl=ONE -pop dist=UNIFORM\(1..1000000\) -schema keyspace="keyspace1" -mode native cql3 -rate threads\>=16 threads\<=256 -log file=~/mixed_autorate_50r50w_1M.log

Notice the following in this example:

  1. The ratio parameter requires backslash-escaped parenthesis.

  2. The value of n used in the read phase is different from the value used in write phase. During the write phase, n records are written. However in the read phase, if n is too large, it is inconvenient to read all the records for simple testing. Generally, n does not need be large when validating the persistent storage systems of a cluster.

    The -pop dist=UNIFORM\(1..1000000\) portion says that of the n=100,000 operations, select the keys uniformly distributed between 1 and 1,000,000. Use this when you want to specify more data per node than what fits in DRAM.

  3. In the rate section, the greater-than and less-than signs are escaped. If not escaped, the shell attempts to use them for IO redirection: the shell tries to read from a non-existent file called =256 and create a file called =16. The rate section tells cassandra-stress to automatically attempt different numbers of client threads and not test less that 16 or more than 256 client threads.

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